Ed Ang-(1?) and Ang II in the decidualized horn of the pseudopregnant rat further confirmed that a down-regulation of RAS is important for the early stages of decidualization [2]. In human placenta at the first trimester of aborted pregnancy, we demonstrated that Ang-(1?) was increased [3], suggesting that an increase in Ang-(1?) in the early uteroplacental unit is detrimental. Similar to the down