R, K3L or vIF2a, demonstrating that K3 and vIF2a had no effect on yeast cell growth (Figure 2A). In contrast, induction of PKR expression was toxic in the vector-transformed yeast, whereas the toxicity was suppressed by co-expression of K3L or vIF2a (Figure 2B). Based on the homology of vIF2a with eIF2a throughout the entire ORF we tested whether suppression of PKR toxicity might be caused by the